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2020.12.16

CCDCOEがタリンマニュアル3.0の開発を進めるとアナウンスしていますね。。。

こんにちは、丸山満彦です。

CCDCOE[wikipedia]がタリンマニュアル[wikipedia]3.0の開発を進めるとアナウンスしていますね。。。

The NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence: CCDCOE

・2020.12.14 CCDCOE to Host the Tallinn Manual 3.0 Process

The CCDCOE has committed to host a project to revise and expand the influential Tallinn Manual 2.0 on International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations. The comprehensive 2017 edition will be updated in the light of emerging State practice.

プロジェクトディレクターは、1.0、2.0と同じくUniversity or ReadingのProfessor Michael N. Schmitt(マイケル・シュミット教授)[wikipedia]が努めるようですね。従来の開発手法を踏襲するものの、全ての章について見直しをするようです。。。5年のプロジェクトなんですかね。。。

2.0は、ケンブリッジ大学出版局から販売されています。。。

Tallinn Manual 2.0 on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Operations - 2nd Edition

目次概要です

Part I. General International Law and Cyberspace:
1. Sovereignty
2. Due diligence
3. Jurisdiction
4. Law of international responsibility
5. Cyber operations not per se regulated by international law

Part II Specialised regimes of international law and cyberspace
6. International human rights law
7. Diplomatic and consular law
8. Law of the sea
9. Air law
10. Space law
11. International telecommunication law

Part III International Peace and Security and Cyber Activities:
12. Peaceful settlement
13. Prohibition of intervention
14. The use of force
15. Collective security

Part IV The Law of Cyber Armed Conflict:
16. The law of armed conflict generally
17. Conduct of hostilities
18. Certain persons, objects and activities
19. Occupation
20. Neutrality


目次

CONTENTS
Tallinn Manual 2.0 International Group of Experts and Other Participants
Tallinn Manual 1.0 International Group of Experts and Other Participants
Foreword by Toomas Hendrik Ilves, President of the Republic of Estonia
Foreword by Bert Koenders, Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Short form citations
Table of concordance

Introduction

Part I General international law and cyberspace
1 Sovereignty
Rule 1 – Sovereignty (general principle)

Rule 2 – Internal sovereignty
Rule 3 – External sovereignty
Rule 4 – Violation of sovereignty
Rule 5 – Sovereign immunity and inviolability

2 Due diligence
Rule 6 – Due diligence (general principle)

Rule 7 – Compliance with the due diligence principle

3 Jurisdiction
Rule 8 – Jurisdiction (general principle)

Rule 9 – Territorial jurisdiction
Rule 10 – Extraterritorial prescriptive jurisdiction
Rule 11 – Extraterritorial enforcement jurisdiction
Rule 12 – Immunity of States from the exercise of jurisdiction
Rule 13 – International cooperation in law enforcement

4 Law of international responsibility
Section 1: Internationally wrongful acts by a State
Rule 14 – Internationally wrongful cyber acts

Rule 15 – Attribution of cyber operations by State organs
Rule 16 – Attribution of cyber operations by organs of other States
Rule 17 – Attribution of cyber operations by non-State actors
Rule 18 – Responsibility in connection with cyber operations by other States
Rule 19 – Circumstances precluding wrongfulness of cyber operations

Section 2: State countermeasures and necessity
Rule 20 – Countermeasures (general principle)

Rule 21 – Purpose of countermeasures
Rule 22 – Limitations on countermeasures
Rule 23 – Proportionality of countermeasures
Rule 24 – States entitled to take countermeasures
Rule 25 – Effect of countermeasures on third parties
Rule 26 – Necessity

Section 3: Obligations of States for internationally wrongful acts
Rule 27 – Cessation, assurances, and guarantees

Rule 28 – Reparation (general principle)
Rule 29 – Forms of reparation
Rule 30 – Breach of obligations owed to the international community as a whole

Section 4: Responsibility of international organisations
Rule 31 – General principle

5 Cyber operations not per se regulated by international law
Rule 32 – Peacetime cyber espionage

Rule 33 – Non-State actors

Part II Specialised regimes of international law and cyberspace
6 International human rights law
Rule 34 – Applicability

Rule 35 – Rights enjoyed by individuals
Rule 36 – Obligations to respect and protect international human rights
Rule 37 – Limitations
Rule 38 – Derogation

7 Diplomatic and consular law
Rule 39 – Inviolability of premises in which cyber infrastructure is located

Rule 40 – Duty to protect cyber infrastructure
Rule 41 – Inviolability electronic archives, documents, and correspondence
Rule 42 – Free communication
Rule 43 – Use of premises and activities of officials
Rule 44 – Privileges and immunities of diplomatic agents and consular officers

8 Law of the sea
Rule 45 – Cyber operations on the high seas

Rule 46 – The right of visit and cyber operations
Rule 47 – Cyber operations in the exclusive economic zone
Rule 48 – Cyber operations in the territorial sea
Rule 49 – Cyber operations in the territorial sea during armed conflict
Rule 50 – Exercise of jurisdiction in relation to foreign vessels in the territorial sea
Rule 51 – Cyber operations in the contiguous zone
Rule 52 – Cyber operations in international straits
Rule 53 – Cyber operations in archipelagic waters
Rule 54 – Submarine communication cables

9 Air law
Rule 55 – Control of aircraft conducting cyber operations in national airspace

Rule 56 – Cyber operations in international airspace
Rule 57 – Cyber operations jeopardising the safety of international civil aviation

10 Space law
Rule 58 – Peaceful purposes and uses of force

Rule 59 – Respect for space activities
Rule 60 – Supervision, responsibility, and liability

11 International telecommunication law
Rule 61 – Duty to establish, maintain, and safeguard international telecommunication infrastructure

Rule 62 – Suspension or stoppage of cyber communications
Rule 63 – Harmful interference
Rule 64 – Exemption of military radio installations

Part III International peace and security and cyber activities
12 Peaceful settlement
Rule 65 – Peaceful settlement of disputes

13 Prohibition of intervention
Rule 66 – Intervention by States

Rule 67 – Intervention by the United Nations

14 The use of force
Section 1: Prohibition of the use of force
Rule 68 – Prohibition of threat or use of force

Rule 69 – Definition of use of force
Rule 70 – Definition of threat of force

Section 2: Self-defence
Rule 71 – Self-defence against armed attack

Rule 72 – Necessity and proportionality
Rule 73 – Imminence and immediacy
Rule 74 – Collective self-defence
Rule 75 – Reporting measures of self-defence

15 Collective security
Rule 76 – United Nations Security Council

Rule 77 – Regional organisations
Rule 78 – Peace operations
Rule 79 – Peace operations personnel, installations, materiel, units, and vehicles

Part IV The law of cyber armed conflict
16 The law of armed conflict generally
Rule 80 – Applicability of the law of armed conflict

Rule 81 – Geographical limitations
Rule 82 – Characterisation as international armed conflict
Rule 83 – Characterisation as non-international armed conflict
Rule 84 – Individual criminal responsibility for war crimes
Rule 85 – Criminal responsibility of commanders and superiors

17 Conduct of hostilities
Section 1: Participation in armed conflict
Rule 86 – Participation generally

Rule 87 – Members of the armed forces
Rule 88 – Levée en masse
Rule 89 – Spies
Rule 90 – Mercenaries
Rule 91 – Civilians

Section 2: Attacks generally
Rule 92 – Definition of cyber attack

Rule 93 – Distinction

Section 3: Attacks against persons
Rule 94 – Prohibition of attacking civilians

Rule 95 – Doubt as to status of persons
Rule 96 – Persons as lawful objects of attack
Rule 97 – Civilian direct participants in hostilities
Rule 98 – Terror attacks

Section 4: Attacks against objects
Rule 99 – Prohibition of attacking civilian objects

Rule 100 – Civilian objects and military objectives
Rule 101 – Objects used for civilian and military purposes
Rule 102 – Doubt as to status of objects

Section 5: Means and methods of warfare
Rule 103 – Definitions of means and methods of warfare

Rule 104 – Superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering
Rule 105 – Indiscriminate means or methods
Rule 106 – Cyber booby traps
Rule 107 – Starvation
Rule 108 – Belligerent reprisals
Rule 109 – Reprisals under Additional Protocol I
Rule 110 – Weapons review

Section 6: Conduct of attacks
Rule 111 – Indiscriminate attacks

Rule 112 – Clearly separated and distinct military objectives
Rule 113 – Proportionality

Section 7: Precautions
Rule 114 – Constant care

Rule 115 – Verification of targets
Rule 116 – Choice of means or methods
Rule 117 – Precautions as to proportionality
Rule 118 – Choice of targets
Rule 119 – Cancellation or suspension of attack
Rule 120 – Warnings
Rule 121 – Precautions against the effects of cyber attacks

Section 8: Perfidy and improper use
Rule 122 – Perfidy

Rule 123 – Ruses
Rule 124 – Improper use of the protective indicators
Rule 125 – Improper use of United Nations emblem
Rule 126 – Improper use of enemy indicators
Rule 127 – Improper use of neutral indicators

Section 9: Blockades and zones
Rule 128 – Maintenance and enforcement of blockades

Rule 129 – Effect of blockades on neutral activities
Rule 130 – Zones

18 Certain persons, objects, and activities
Section 1: Medical and religious personnel and medical units, transports, and material
Rule 131 – Medical and religious personnel, medical units and transports

Rule 132 – Medical computers, computer networks, and data
Rule 133 – Identification
Rule 134 – Loss of protection and warnings

Section 2: Detained persons
Rule 135 – Protection of detained persons

Rule 136 – Correspondence of detained persons
Rule 137 – Compelled participation in military activities

Section 3: Children
Rule 138 – Protection of children

Section 4: Journalists
Rule 139 – Protection of journalists

Section 5: Installations containing dangerous forces
Rule 140 – Duty of care during attacks on dams, dykes, and nuclear electrical generating stations

Section 6: Objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population
Rule 141 – Protection of objects indispensable to survival

Section 7: Cultural property
Rule 142 – Respect for and protection of cultural property

Section 8: The natural environment
Rule 143 – Protection of the natural environment

Section 9: Collective punishment
Rule 144 – Collective punishment

Section 10: Humanitarian assistance
Rule 145 – Humanitarian assistance

19 Occupation
Rule 146 – Respect for protected persons in occupied territory

Rule 147 – Public order and safety in occupied territory
Rule 148 – Security of the Occupying Power
Rule 149 – Confiscation and requisition of property

20 Neutrality
Rule 150 – Protection of neutral cyber infrastructure

Rule 151 – Cyber operations in neutral territory
Rule 152 – Neutral obligations
Rule 153 – Response by parties to the conflict to violations
Rule 154 – Neutrality and Security Council actions

Glossary
Index


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