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2020.10.09

欧州議会は人工知能の民事責任に関する報告書を発表していますね

こんにちは、丸山満彦です。

欧州議会は人工知能の民事責任に関する報告書を発表していますね。。。

Europian Committee - Committee on Legal Affairs

・2020.10.05 [PDF] REPORT with recommendations to the Commission on a civil liability regime for artificial intelligence (2020/2014(INL))

目次

  • MOTION FOR A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT RESOLUTION
  • ANNEX TO THE MOTION FOR A RESOLUTION: DETAILED RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DRAWING UP A EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND COUNCIL REGULATION ON LIABILITY FOR THE OPERATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE-SYSTEMS
  • EXPLANATORY STATEMENT
  • OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE INTERNAL MARKET AND CONSUMER PROTECTION
  • OPINION OF THE COMMITTEE ON TRANSPORT AND TOURISM
  • INFORMATION ON ADOPTION IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE
  • FINAL VOTE BY ROLL CALL IN COMMITTEE RESPONSIBLE

AIの特徴を「自動化された意思決定」として色々と考えているようです。意思決定に繋がるコードやデータを明確に決めることができなくなる可能性が高く、故に責任を人に帰着させることが難しくなるだろうという前提の下で検討しているように思います。そして、AIを法的人格もなく、人間の良心もなく、人類に奉仕する存在という整理をしていますね。。。

AIシステムを高リスクAIシステムと低リスクAIシステムに分けて議論をしていますね。高リスクAIシステムでは厳格責任制度を採用し、その操作者(Operator)は責任を免れないという考え方のようです。また、保険に強制加入すべきという意見のようですね。。。


Different liability rules for different risks

  1. Recognises that the type of AI-system the operator is exercising control over is a determining factor regarding liability; notes that an AI-system that entails an inherent high risk and acts autonomously potentially endangers the general public to a much higher degree; considers that, based on the legal challenges that AI-systems pose to the existing civil liability regimes, it seems reasonable to set up a common strict liability regime for those high-risk autonomous AI-systems; underlines that such a risk-based approach, that might encompass several levels of risk, should be based on clear criteria and an appropriate definition of high risk and provide for legal certainty;

.....

Insurances and AI-systems

  1. ...

  2. Is of the opinion that, based on the significant potential to cause harm or damage and by taking Directive 2009/103/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 September 2009 relating to insurance against civil liability in respect of the use of motor vehicles, and the enforcement of the obligation to insure against such liability13 into account, all operators of high-risk AI-systems listed in the Annex to the proposed Regulation should hold liability insurance; considers that such a mandatory insurance regime for high-risk AI-systems should cover the amounts and the extent of compensation laid down by the proposed Regulation; is mindful of the fact that such technology is currently still very rare, since it presupposes a high degree of autonomous decision making and that, as a result, the current discussions are mostly future-oriented; believes nevertheless that uncertainty regarding risks should not make insurance premiums prohibitively high and thereby an obstacle to research and innovation;

 

■ 参考

・2020.09.28 [PDF] Civil liability regime for artificial intelligence European added value assessment

・2020.07 [PDF] STUDY Requested by the JURI committee: Artificial Intelligence and Civil Liability

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