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・2020.08.14 Online crime in Africa a bigger threat than ever before, INTERPOL report warns

・[PDF] Online African Organized Crime from Surface to Darkweb






Project ENACT



・2020.07.07 INTERPOLが「急成長しているアフリカのモバイルマネー業界に犯罪者が深く広く入り込んでいる」という報告書を出していますね。。。


Table of Contents

List of Acronyms

Executive Summary


 1.1. Scope and Objective
 1.2. Methodology


 3.1. Internet and social media penetration
 3.2. Cybercrime and cyber-enabled crime
 3.3. Organized crime groups

 4.1. Financial crimes online
 4.2. Trafficking in human beings and people smuggling
  4.2.1. Human trafficking facilitated online
  4.2.2. Smuggling of migrants facilitated online
 4.3. Crimes against children online
 4.4. Trafficking in works of art online
 4.5. Environmental crimes online
 4.6. Illicit trade in diamonds online
 4.7. Trafficking in small arms and light weapons online
 4.8. Drug trafficking online
 4.9. Trafficking in counterfeit goods online
 4.10. Trafficking in stolen motor vehicles online

 5.1. Background
 5.2. How to access the dark web?
 5.3. Africa and the dark web
 5.4. Use of cryptocurrency
 5.5. What can the user find on the dark web?
  5.5.1. Hidden services
  5.5.2. Crime areas on the dark web - Africa
  5.5.3. Locations mentioned
  5.5.4. User profiles
  5.5.5. Payment methods
  5.5.6. Use of language
 5.6. VPN and TOR usage in Africa
  5.6.1. Usage of VPN in Africa
  5.6.2. Usage of TOR in Africa




Executive Summary

In recent years, cyber-enabled crimes have increased on the African continent. This has been a result of a combination of factors, including, the improvement of Internet coverage, the wide availability of cyber-tools and the growing flexibility of cybercriminals. As a consequence, online crime nowadays represents a bigger security issue for law enforcement in African member countries than ever before. In this framework, INTERPOL, under the European Union funded ENACT Project, examines through this assessment the issue of cyber and cyber enabled crimes in Africa in order to help drive a more strategic law enforcement response.

Cybercriminals and Organized Crime Groups (OCG) active in Africa are most probably using the Internet to commit a range of online criminal activities. They use the Internet to find, coerce and control victims online or offline. They also use it to sell products, in most cases procured illegally, as well as to deceive online users and steal their money. They take advantage of online anonymity, use code languages and temporary tools and, in some cases, leave no online trace.

The assessment highlights those cybercriminals that are likely changing the face of the Internet to further their illegal activities on the international scene. They are becoming more sophisticated, with a growing capacity to carry out a range of new types of crimes. In addition, the lack of investment and public awareness, exacerbated by limited capacities to prevent, detect, and investigate these incidents in some African countries, are further driving this criminality on the continent.

Certain crime areas have most likely witnessed in recent years a shift from the surface web to the dark web, where enforcement on a national level is more complex. Despite difficulties at the moment to quantify criminal\ use on the dark web as much as on the surface web due to the anonymity factor, the report seeks to show the growing criminal activity on the dark web in connection to Africa.

As cyber-enabled crimes in Africa increase and change, greater awareness of the overall issue and identification of best practice responses from law enforcement will most probably be required. INTERPOL is in a position to support member countries through coordinated, intelligence-led support to law enforcement using a range of operational databases and support techniques.

The following are the key findings deriving from an analysis of a range of data sources available on cyber-enabled crime in Africa:

 African countries are likely increasingly vulnerable to cyber-enabled crimes as source as well as target countries.

 Cyber-enabled financial crimes most probably take various forms and affect individuals, companies, and public administration in all African regions.

 Trafficking in Human Beings (THB) in Africa is likely facilitated by the Internet as it allows the recruitment, control, and deception of victims through social media, instant messaging applications and online platforms.

 Migrant smuggling in Africa is likely facilitated by social media and encrypted messaging applications: OCGs advertise their services and African migrants refer to information to reduce risks.

 African and non-African offenders most probably use the Internet to abuse African children online and offline.

 OCGs active in Africa probably use the Internet to sell drugs and contact local as well as international customers/providers. \  African OCGs, mainly North African, are likely using social networking sites to facilitate the looting and trafficking of stolen works of art on continental but also transnational levels.

 African OCGs, almost certainly in connection with their transnational counterparts, are increasingly using social media-based trade for Illegal Wildlife Trade (IWT) and trafficking in precious minerals through the help of middlemen/women.

 OCGs active in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW) trafficking in Africa are increasingly using social networking sites to conduct trade. They are likely engaged in other online criminal activities as well.

 With the increase in Internet coverage, online trade of illicit goods is likely increasing on the African continent.

 OCGs active in Africa are likely increasingly using the Internet to complete various stages of the process of trafficking in Stolen Motor Vehicles (SMV).

 African cybercriminals are most likely limiting contact by using code languages and temporary tools, making disruption by law enforcement even harder.

 Cybercriminals trafficking online in Africa include private individuals, enthusiasts, collectors and traditional Internet users.

 Some cyber OCGs involved in online trafficking on the continent are most likely part of hierarchical networks where the leader recruits members to complete specific tasks that would facilitate online crimes. Other OCGs are likely nontraditional loosely connected groups that connect for the purpose of committing a crime.

 Cybercriminals on surface web and dark web are increasingly flexible and knowledgeable Internet users. They are \ most probably investing in improving their technological skills, business know-how and advertisement strategies.

 Some OCGs active online in Africa are most probably employing middlemen/women at different stages of the crime activity to ensure the smooth running of criminal business.

 The analysis of various elements on dark web domains suggests that cybercriminals located in Africa are likely active on the dark web with growing transnational links.

 It is likely that crime elements from Kenya, Nigeria and South Africa are engaged in dark web activities.


« FBIとNSAは合同でLinuxシステムを対象としたロシアのDrovorubマルウェアについて情報を公開していますね。。。 | Main | ISACAとCSAがクラウドの監査に関する戦略的パートナーシップを締結したようですね。。。 »


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« FBIとNSAは合同でLinuxシステムを対象としたロシアのDrovorubマルウェアについて情報を公開していますね。。。 | Main | ISACAとCSAがクラウドの監査に関する戦略的パートナーシップを締結したようですね。。。 »